Rangefinders Professional Photography: Techniques and Images from the Pages of Rangefinder Magazine

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Autofocus systems rely on one or more sensors to determine correct focus. Some AF systems rely on a single sensor, while others use an array of sensors. Most modern SLR cameras use through-the-lens optical sensors, with a separate sensor array providing light metering, although the latter can be programmed to prioritize its metering to the same area as one or more of the AF sensors. Through-the-lens optical autofocusing is now often speedier and more precise than can be achieved ma.

German Army Leopard 2A5 main battle tanks in August A main battle tank MBT , also known as a battle tank or universal tank[1], is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies. Cold War-era development of more powerful engines, better suspension systems and lighter weight composite armor allowed a tank to have the firepower of a super-heavy tank, armor protection of a heavy tank, and mobility of a light tank all in a package with the weight of a medium tank.

Through the s, the MBT replaced almost all other tanks, leaving only some specialist roles to be filled by lighter designs or other types of armored fighting vehicles. Today, main battle tanks are considered a key component of modern armies. They are also often supported by surveillance or ground-attack aircraft. The Nikon SP is a professional level, interchangeable lens, 35 mm film, rangefinder camera introduced in It is the culmination of Nikon's rangefinder development which started in with the Nikon I, and was "arguably the most advanced rangefinder of its time.

Nikon Corporation since In 2, models of a repro model were manufactured under the name of "Nikon SP Limited Edition". The camera was exclusively sold in Japan and came with a modern multi-coated W-Nikkor 3. The frames are parallax-corrected and the focusing patch appears in the centre of th. It was introduced to the market on 13 October Because of this, the Hexar RF can mount and focus lenses designed for the Leica and other compatible M-mount cameras or, when used with an adapter, the earlier Leica thread mount lenses note that due to physical constraints there is no adapter to allow bayonet mount lenses to be fitted to a Lei.

Leica Camera s Nikon D Digital Camera Sub-miniature spy camera A camera is an optical instrument to capture still images or to record moving images, which are stored in a physical medium such as in a digital system or on photographic film. A camera consists of a lens which focuses light from the scene, and a camera body which holds the image capture mechanism. The still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography and captured images may be reproduced later as a part of the process of photography, digital imaging, photographic printing.

The similar artistic fields in the moving image camera domain are film, videography, and cinematography. The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface.

Techniques and Images from the Pages of

The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura. The functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. The first perm. It was one of the smallest rangefinder cameras ever made, together with the Contax T.

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He was the chief camera designer and managing director of Olympus Optical Co Ltd. The original model, the XA, was sold from to The lens was protected by a sliding dust cover. Film wind is by thumb-wheel, aperture is set on the body using a small lever, focus is set by a small lever below the lens, film speed ISO is set on a dial below the lens, the viewfinder is optical direct-view with the rangefinder fram. The tank first entered service in and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army.

Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and 12 other European countries, as well as several non-European nations, including Canada, Chile, Indonesia, Singapore, and Turkey.

Rangefinder vs SLR - Which one is BETTER?

There are two main development batches of the tank: the original models up to Leopard 2A4, which have vertically faced turret armour, and the improved batch, namely the Leopard 2A5 and newer versions, which have angled arrow-shaped tur. Variations There are six models. FED 2a was introduced in FED 2b has flash sync added. The new shutter speed dial has the reference point on a center post that rotates with the dial as the shutter is fired. FED 2c has the flash sync port moved to the top deck from the body. It also has a mushroom-shaped film advance knob.

Canon - Nikon comparison

The body is identical to the FED 2d body but the lens supplied is. A simplified illustration of the parallax of an object against a distant background due to a perspective shift. When viewed from "Viewpoint A", the object appears to be in front of the blue square.

When the viewpoint is changed to "Viewpoint B", the object appears to have moved in front of the red square. This animation is an example of parallax. As the viewpoint moves side to side, the objects in the distance appear to move more slowly than the objects close to the camera. In this case, the blue cube in front appears to move faster than the red cube. To measure l. Laser designators provide targeting for laser-guided bombs, missiles, or precision artillery munitions, such as the Paveway series of bombs, AGM Hellfire, or the M Copperhead round, respectively.

When a target is marked by a designator, the beam is invisible and does not shine continuously. Instead, a series of coded pulses of laser light are fired.

These signals bounce off the target into the sky, where they are detected by the seeker on the laser-guided munition, which steers itself towards the centre of the reflected signal. Unless the people being targeted possess laser detection equipment or can hear aircraft overhead, it is extremely difficult for them to determine if they are being marked.

Laser designators work best in clear atmospheric conditions. Cloud cover, rain or s. The camera was designed in , but the Second World War prevented its release, which finally occurred in The first Foca models were named "PF" for petit format, "small format" and distinguished by the number of stars.

They had focal plane shutter and interchangeable lenses on a screw mounting. The "PF1" one star , later named "Standard", was the basic version without rangefinder. After , the company developed a bayonet mount version, called "Universel", with a series of lenses all coupled to the rangefinder. Like the Contax II, the Foca had the rangefinder integrated in the viewfinder.

In , the viewfinder became wider magnification , collimated and corrected from parallax. When using most Zorki cameras, the shutter speed should only be set after the shutter has been cocked. Setting the shutter speed before the shutter is cocked can permanently damage the camera.

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Zorki 2-s with Industar lens The first Zorki was the Zorki called "Zorki 1" by some for clarity, although it never had a number in the name , an exact. The original Hi-Matic of was the first Minolta camera to feature automatic exposure and achieved a small degree of fame when a version the Ansco Autoset was taken into space by John Glenn in Both the aperture and shutter speed were set automatically.

The Hi-Matic was also rebadged as the Ansco Autoset. The Hi-Matic 7 followed in Additionally, it gave photographers the option of setting the exposure manually, an option not available in the original Hi-Mati. Striker is an Iranian main battle tank. The tank was announced on 12 March At the announcement, it was stated that it possessed an electro-optical fire control system, a laser rangefinder, ballistic computer and could fire at both stationary and mobile targets in day or night.

The Lynx is a family of rangefinder cameras made by Japanese company Yashica from the earlys with coupled and fixed lenses.

Bailey rangefinder nz

Models The Lynx was introduced in It has a Light is metered using a small selenium photovoltaic cell behind a lens array, powering a galvanometer. The film speed for the metering system can be set from 10 to ASA. The Lynx was introduced in It was an upgrade to the Lynx and replaced the photovoltaic cell with a cadmium sulfide CdS photoresistor, requiring a mercury battery for the light meter. The Lynx 14 was released in In the Lynx e and Lynx 14e were introduced. These variants both switched to two PX batteries.

In , the LCA was officially named "Tejas". This provides better high-alpha performance characteristics than conventional wing designs. It integrates technologies such as relaxed static stability, fly-by-wire flight control system, multi-mode radar, integrated digital avionics system and composite material structures.

Towards a modern paradigm for Leica CRF photography

It is the smallest and lightest in its class of contemporary supersonic combat aircraft. Several models were produced over the years, with significant improvements. The Leica III uses a coupled rangefinder distinct from the viewfinder. The viewfinder is set for a 50mm lens; use of shorter or longer lenses requires installing an alternate viewfinder on the accessory socket. DP Review. Retrieved It is commonly referred to by the nicknames "Warthog" or "Hog", although the A's official name comes from the Republic P Thunderbolt, a World War II fighter-bomber effective at attacking ground targets.

Its secondary mission is to provide forward air controller — airborne support, by directing other aircraft in attacks on ground targets. Aircraft used primarily in this role are designated OA The A was intended to improve on the performance of the A-1 Skyraider and its lesser firepower. The A was designed ar. A common computer input device, a keyboard.

A user presses a key which transfers information to a computor. In computing, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.

Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, digital cameras, joysticks, and microphones. Input devices can be categorized based on: modality of input e.

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Each button, or key, can be used to either input a linguistic character to a c. The Electro 35 is a rangefinder camera made by Japanese company Yashica from the mids with a coupled and fixed It was the first electronically controlled camera, operating mainly in an aperture priority 'auto' mode. History The original Electro 35 was introduced in It has a "cold" accessory shoe and the meter accepted film speeds from 12 to ASA. Light levels are measured using a cadmium sulphide CdS photoresistor and powered by a mercury battery. The film speed adjustment is not implemented electronically; instead, a simple twin-bladed diaphragm closes in front of the light sensor as the film speed is reduced.

The light metering electronics works by accumulating the measured light level and only releasing the shutter when it has determined enough light has fallen on the film.